Belarusian Journal of International Law and International Relations 2004 — N 4


International Law

International Organizations

The Evolution of the Concept of the Enhanced Cooperation within the Framework of the European Union — Vladimir Astapenko

Peculiarities of the Commonwealth of Independent States Legal Acts — Igor Barkovsky

Legal Procedure Capacity of International Non-governmental Organizations — Ekaterina Kuznetsova

International Private Law

Franchising: Its Essence, Problems and Legal Regulation — Vera Korzun

Development of International Legal Regulation of Transnational Bankruptcy — Elena Leanovich

Comparative Law

Requirements for the Exclusion from Limitation of Actions. Review of Legislations of Some Continental Legal System States — Alla Belokuzova

International Relations

Foreign Policy Activities of the BSSR: the Party and State Administration System and Diplomacy (1950s—1980s) — Vladimir Snapkovsky

The Geopolitical Potential of the Republic of Belarus at the Current Stage — Ekaterina Kazak

Some Aspects of the Policy of Belarus in the Middle East — Tatiana EvseichikBelarusian-Yugoslavian Economic Relations in the 1990s — Pavel Malashuk

Cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and the UNHCR in the Framework of Geneva and Soderkoping Processes — Andrey Selivanov

The Ideology of the Present-day American-Iraqi Confrontation — Yaroslav Cherkassky

September 11 and China’s Policy in Central Asia: New Priorities and Emphases — Vitaly Borovoy

Belgium: From Separation Towards Federalism (Federalism Evolution in Belgium) — Yuliya Kuchuk

The Reforms of Social Protection System in France (1993—1997) — Konstantin Snisarenko

Russian Historiography of World War I — Svetlana Svilas

Russian Society and the Entente During the Balkan Wars of 1912—1913 — Yury Moroz

International Economic Relations

The European Union — Belarus: Transborder Cooperation Forecast Parametres — Vladimir Rudenkov, Maxim Belitsky

Trade Relations of the Republic of Belarus and the European Union: Problems, Benefits, Future — Svetlana Kosinskaya

International Experience of Regulation of Entrance Tourism — Milena Akopyan

Sovereign Credit Rating: the Nature and Assignment Procedures — Alexey Samodurov

Food Security: Methods of Research and Ways of Achievement — Natalia Svireyko

Documents and Materials

Clean Air for Residents and Guests of Minsk (only russian)


English Summaries

"The Evolution of the Concept of the Enhanced Cooperation within the Framework of the European Union" (Vladimir Astapenko)

The article is devoted to the "flexibility clause" which after fierce debates was for the first time incorporated in the provisions of the Amsterdam Treaty and then substantially developed in the Treaty of Nice. The most characteristic feature at that point was the proposed universality for the flexibility concept and the readiness of the member-states to implement it within all three pillars of the European Union — common market, CFSP and criminal justice affairs. The author traces further development of the enhanced cooperation in the newly signed text of the Treaty establishing the Constitution for Europe. The detailed analysis of the new provisions and procedures shows that such a concept needs to meet certain criteria to be initiated and realized. It is noted that special emphasis is made on the accessibility of the ongoing enhanced cooperation to other member-states of the European Union. The author concludes that the Constitution provides an effective legal basis for the closer cooperation of the interested member-states of the European Union.

"Peculiarities of the Commonwealth of Independent States Legal Acts" (Igor Barkovsky)

The article demonstrates the types of the CIS legal acts. Important problems relevant to the CIS legal acts are explored, such as: insufficient regulation of the legal status of the CIS bodies’ acts; lack of classification of the CIS acts types which, if drawn, would permit to refer the act to a certain type by its name alone; implementation of internal state procedures according to international agreements signed within the framework of the CIS.

In the author’s opinion the analysis of the CIS legal base shows that the majority of the instruments have been adopted lately in the sphere of combating crime and international terrorism, in that of economic cooperation of states as well as in the field of improvement of the CIS bodies operation and its legislative activity.

The author has studied a number of the CIS legal acts aimed at improving legislative activity of the CIS as well as their systematization and registration. Special attention is paid to the consideration of documents adopted by the Council of Heads of States on September 15, 2004, such as the Concept of the Single Register of Legal Acts and Other Documents of the CIS and Provision of Clause on the Single Register of Legal Acts and Other Documents.

The article presents some recommendations of the author for improving the CIS legal acts preparation.

"Legal Procedure Capacity of International Nongovernmental Organizations" (Ekaterina Kuznetsova)

The article is devoted to the study of the legal capacity of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) in international judicial bodies. The author analyzed the law and practice of the relations with NGOs at the International Court of Justice, International Criminal Tribunals, including the examination of the role of NGOs in the investigations recently initiated by the International Criminal Court into alleged atrocities in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The author understands by "legal procedure capacity" not only the locus standi but other forms of participation in the proceedings of different international courts. In particular, the NGO role as a source of information is viewed, when an investigation can be initiated on the basis of a amicus curiae note or an expert group report.

Based on the analysis, the conclusions are drawn as to the importance of the NGO participation in the functioning of the international judicial bodies, especially of those in the area of human rights and humanitarian law. The very fact of the recognized standing in the international courts amplifies derivative international personality of NGOs.

"Franchising: Its Essence, Problems and Legal Regulation" (Vera Korzun)

Franchising as a particular method of doing business has acquired a worldwide recognition that can be explained by the efficiency and a high stability of the newly established undertakings entering the system, as well as by the benefits franchising provides to the parties of the contract.

According to Valentine Korah, franchising is a chameleon word, and its content varies greatly depending upon the type of the examined relations. As a whole, franchising can be defined as a method of marketing and distributing the goods.

The issue of terminology applicable in respect to franchising is still a problematic one: there is no common terminology in the Russian language in the field concerned. Likewise, there is no single view on the content of the terms used.

The application of franchising in Belarus is still insignificant. Most researchers tend to explain this fact by the legal problems of franchising, existing limitation on the conclusion of the franchise contracts and lack of the specific law on franchising in Belarus. However, the author argues that for the development of franchising in Belarus such a law is not indispensable. And with a new edition of Chapter 53 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Belarus that will enter into force on February 27, 2005, coupled with the existing business law rules and norms on the protection of the intellectual property rights, franchising should acquire new impetus for development in Belarus.

"Development of International Legal Regulation of Transnational Bankruptcy" (Elena Leanovich)

The foreign element of bankruptcy can be presented by the following: the debtor is not the resident of the country of the court or has nationality of another state; the property of the debtor is situated on the territory of another state; the creditors are not residents of the country of the court; the procedures of bankruptcy concerning the same debtor are carried out in the foreign state and in the country of the court; the foreign competitive manager participates in the domestic procedure of bankruptcy.

The resolution of bankruptcy problems is based on strictly imperative rules. According to international private law these norms are a part of public order domain. Thus, conclusion of transnational bankruptcy with the help of classical mechanisms of international private law seems to be complicated.

The complexities and gaps of legal regulation of transnational bankruptcy can be explained by the absence of special legal provisions in national and in international law. Nowadays the most significant result of universal unification in the considered area is The European Convention on International Aspects of Bankruptcy (signed in Istanbul in 1990, henceforth the European Convention) which has not come into force.

The European Convention mechanisms allow:

а) to recognize the competence of the manager appointed in the foreign member-state,

b) to realize procedures of secondary bankruptcy in any member-state, in which the bankrupt has property,

c) to protect rights of foreign creditors (informing, nondiscrimination).

In Belarus the situation of transnational bankruptcy is not very acute. However, sometimes there are foreign elements in the Belarusian procedures of bankruptcy: the property of the debtor is situated abroad; foreign creditors declare their claims, etc. Certain problems of transnational bankruptcy are mentioned in the legislation of the Republic of Belarus. In particular, the possibility for foreign creditors to declare their claims is recognized. But the exterritorial effect of the Belarusian bankruptcy procedures can be achieved only through the operation of reciprocity and legal help mechanisms.

On the one hand, the appearance in the Belarusian legislation of the transnational bankruptcy concept and participation of our state in the international agreements dedicated to this problem would provide more efficient protection to the Belarusian creditors abroad. On the other hand, it would grant better rating concerning stability and predictability of investments and economic climate in our country.

"Requirements for the Exclusion from Limitation of Actions. Review of Legislations of Some Continental Legal System States" (Alla Belokuzova)

Legal regulation of the institute of limitation of actions in the modern legislation of the states with the continental legal system has distinctive features manifested in a multitude of various limitation periods for different legal relations, fixed in various sources of the legislation on the one hand, and in aspiration to classification of the limitation periods, aimed at the achievement of legal stability on the other. Thus, regulation of actions, to which no limitation period applies, is of great importance as a reflection of understanding of legal equity in the society at a certain defined stage of its development.

Attempts of classification of the given actions were undertaken both in legislations of the states, and in the doctrine. The author offers a classification of actions, to which no limitation period applies, based on the analysis of the reasons for their inclusion in the legislation. By the example of the comparative analysis of the legislation of Belarus, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland and doctrinal approaches the author defines 4 basic groups of legal relationships, excluded from the field of limitation of actions, and emphasizes the necessity of systematic interpretation of limitation of actions on application of limitation law. The author proposes to establish the unified exhaustive list of actions to which no limitation period applies, which would promote legal stability in the context of international globalization.

"Foreign Policy Activities of the BSSR: the Party and State Administration System and Diplomacy (1950s—1980s)" (Vladimir Snapkovsky)

The author presents a chapter from the textbook for the international relations students of Belarusian State University "Belarus’ Foreign Policy History. Part 2: From the Beginning of the 18th Century to the Beginning of the 21st Century". The first part of the chapter published here sets forth the materials about the party and state mechanism of the foreign political operations and relations of the BSSR which began to emerge in the aftermath of World War II and were finally formed in the early 1960s. The main directions of the BSSR activities in the UN in the 1950s—1980s are reviewed.

"The Geopolitical Potential of the Republic of Belarus at the Current Stage" (Ekaterina Kazak)

The article broaches a question of national security of the Republic of Belarus in the context of transformation of the world system of international relations.

The present thesis is the first comprehensive Belarusian study that explores how the geopolitical potential affects the form and content of national security in the Republic of Belarus during the period of transition. In particular, this article contains the description of the aspects which compose the geopolitical potential of the Republic of Belarus, such as the geoeconomic, social-political, geoinformatical, demographical, scientific and technological, intellectual and military strategical aspects.

The provisions and conclusions of this paper may be used as the theoretical methodological basis for a course of lectures on the subject as well as for further studies of the processes and phenomena related to ensuring security and realizing the joint potential of the Republic, furthering insight into the geopolitical component of security and for upgrading the Doctrine of National Security of the Republic of Belarus.

"Some Aspects of the Policy of Belarus in the Middle East" (Tatiana Evseichik)

The author analyzes economic and political ties between Belarus and Egypt, and compares them with the relationship being developed with Syria and Libya. The emphasis is made on the factors that allow to consider Egypt as a priority for the Belarusian policy in this region. The author points out positive aspects of the Belarusian-Egyptian relationship and notes the problems existing in bilateral relations. She also presents a forecast of the further cooperation tendencies.

"Belarusian-Yugoslavian Economic Relations in the 1990s" (Pavel Malashuk)

One of the vital directions of the international relations is economic cooperation. Trade and economic ties of the states are mainly determined by their political relations and play an important role in the solution of domestic and foreign policy issues. Their stable development proves positive nature of the states’ relations also in the foreign policy sphere as well.

The article explores basic directions and forms of economic cooperation of the Republic of Belarus and the United Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The Yugoslavian (Serbian) vector has played and is still playing an important role in the foreign policy of the Republic of Belarus. Slavonic roots and close historical ties predetermined its special importance for Minsk. Tracing the development of organizational and legal, conceptual and practical aspects of bilateral Belarusian-Yugoslavian economic cooperation the author notes both positive results and outstanding potential in each of these aspects. The author analyzes conditions, prerequisites, specific features and difficulties of Belarusian-Yugoslavian economic relations in the 1990s, notes hardships that did not allow to fully realize the potential of increasing trade turnover between the states. The Belarusian economy, like the Yugoslavian one is rapidly becoming open to the global market and export is its basic orientation. For this purpose the authorities changed laws, introduced customs, fiscal and financial concessions for investments of foreign capital. Both Yugoslavia (since 2003 — Serbia and Montenegro) and Belarus are economies with great potential, impressive technical and technological intellectual assets. The author believes that despite the existing hardships with realization of economic cooperation plans between the states there are good prospects for its further enhancement.

The sources of the article are mainly materials and documents from the archives of the Republic of Belarus and the materials of periodical press. The main part of the sources is used in scientific research for the first time.

"Cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and the UNHCR in the Framework of Geneva and Soderkoping Processes" (Andrey Selivanov)

The Republic of Belarus, as a part of the international system of refugee protection and solving of migration issues, is actively demonstrating the aspiration for finding civilized ways and measures of the solution of these problems. The UNHCR activity in our country makes a positive impact on building of the system of refugee protection and solving of migration issues.

Cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and the UNHCR in the framework of Geneva and Soderkoping processes helps our country to improve the system of refugee protection, to solve migration issues, to develop cooperation with other states and international organizations in this sphere. Recommendations and solutions accepted within the framework of the processes are realized by the Republic of Belarus in practice. As a result, over last ten years Belarus has made an important progress in the issues of government management of migration processes, and an effectively working system of refugee protection has been created.

It clearly demonstrates a serious intention of the Republic of Belarus to qualitatively improve the mechanism of the migration control, to provide protection of the rights of migrants and refugees, to create conditions for successful adaptation and integration of repatriates and refugees, and also to develop and strengthen relations with the CIS countries, the neighboring states and international organizations by means of further cooperation with them and highest possible realization of obligations assumed.

"The Ideology of the Present-day American-Iraqi Confrontation" (Yaroslav Cherkassky)

There is a long and time-honoured lineage to the USA involvement and policy in the Persian Gulf. Over the period the US security policy in the Gulf has been characterized by two elements:

— a practical sense of how the policy will address the problem;

— a vision of what a more stable region would look like if the policy were fully and successfully carried on;

The Gulf remains in the focus of the US attention and it could be argued that the Gulf problems (primarily, Iraq) actually represents the number one issue facing the world nowdays

"September 11 and China’s Policy in Central Asia: New Priorities and Emphases" (Vitaly Borovoy)

In the aftermath of September 11, as the US launched its military operation against the Taleban in Afghanistan, the situation in Central Asia has changed dramatically. The US military presence, NATO activities in the region and the renewed interest that some countries (India) take in Central Asia are becoming essential features of the region’s geopolitical development. It seems obvious that while Russia and China are trying to preserve their shattered influence in Central Asia, the balance of power here is shifting. Though China is doing its best to stay outside of what is perceived to be US—Russia quarrel, Central Asia has become too important for her to be ignored. Carefully avoiding direct confrontation with the US, China is keeping her favorite regional organization (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) afloat and working for the future establishing stronger economic ties between Central Asia and China. If successful, in a few decades China may become one of the most influential states in the region.

"Belgium: From Separation Towards Federalism (Federalism Evolution in Belgium)" (Yuliya Kuchuk)

World development is characterized by the dialectic of two processes oppositely directed but interrelated, those of integration and disintegration. This interaction results in various forms of political coexistence, one of which can be traced on the example of Belgium.

Belgium gained independence in 1831 and the statehood set by it was inherently fraught with conflict: its citizens belonged to the mature and well-formed ethnoses: Walloons and Flemings. For decades linguistic controversy between the two provinces? Walloonia and Flanders was exacerbated by cultural discord. The Flemish Nationalist Movement entered the political foreground with its demand of the equality of the status of the French and Flemish languages and eventually of cultural autonomy. This latent conflict emerged into the open in the 1960s when for various reasons Flanders took over economic leadership from Walloonia which in its turn allowed the Flemish to make bid for Flanders separation from Belgium. The country faced the problem of economic separatism, which it is trying to settle through federalization of the country. From the legal point of view Belgium’s drifting towards federalism began in the 1970s when the existence of three communities was fixed in law: the Flemish, Frankophone and German-speaking ones as well as of three regions Walloonia, Flanders and Brussels. The interim pattern of this situation was fixed in the new constitution of 1995 which proclaimed Belgium to be a federal state. The federal reform smoothed out the main contradictions between Flanders and Walloonia, but has not eliminated them altogether. However, political prudence and will for compromise of Flanders and Walloonia political forces permit to hope that all contradictions in this area will in future be settled on the basis of the consensus not to divide Belgium.

"The Reforms of Social Protection System in France (1993—1997)" (Konstantin Snisarenko)

For many countries of Europe the problem of welfare reforms is very important now because of serious demographic changes: the population’s aging, the rise of mortality rate. This article deals with the analysis of the reforms which the French neo-conservative governments carried out in 1993—1997 years.

The French experience of reforms is of interest because they were carried out in the society which had already grown accustomed to being under the protection of the French state. The author draws a conclusion that the reforms (1993—1997) were not deep. They can be assumed as a basis for a deeper transformation of the French welfare system in future.

"Russian Historiography of World War I" (Svetlana Svilas)

Aimed at students of international relations, the article identifies the main stages of the development of World War I historiography and highlights the most significant studies treating certain aspects of that war or the problem in general. Recent developments in the source base of the studies are also reviewed.

"Russian Society and the Entente During the Balkan Wars of 1912—1913" (Yury Moroz)

The article explores the public and political opinion in Russia during the Balkan wars of  1912—1913 which came as the prelude to  World War I.  In particular, it exposes the attitude of the educated community in Russia towards the  Russian partners in the Entente(England and France) and the official St. Petersburg’s policy at that period.

The author identified four main points of view on this problem. The extreme right were against the collaboration of Russia with London and Paris and cautioned St. Petersburg diplomats against confrontation with the Austrian and German bloc. The moderate right and the oktyabrists (the Union of the October 17 — the party of landlords and big bourgeoisie) took the Entente’s side but insisted on the unconditioned support of the Russian interests in the Balkans by the western allies and friends. In its turn, Russia was required to act more decisively  there. In contrast, the constitutional democrats and liberal popular party, while being the Entente’s adherents too, advised Russian diplomacy to act prudently not to lose the partners’ trust and not to remain in isolation. The extreme left rejected any Russian involvement in the Balkan affairs as well as any treaties and agreements of the imperialist powers as rapacious in regard to the third countries and the common people in the world.

The article demonstrates that despite the contradictions within the Entente, the course for its strengthening found sufficient support in the Russian public opinion and was continued by the tsarist diplomacy.

The article also outlines the influence the social and political struggle in Russia during the Balkan Wars had on the further fate of the Romanovs’ empire.

"The European Union — Belarus: Transborder Cooperation Forecast Parametres" (Vladimir Rudenkov, Maxim Belitsky)

The Republic of Belarus is the current subject of the EU studies. Hence, the EU’s support to Belarus is represented by indicative and transborder TACIS programmes, interregional 3C and 3B programmes and New Neighbourhood instruments. Mathematical and statistic approaches made it possible for the authors to forecast the parameters of the EU—Belarus transborder cooperation, as well as to define the necessary financing for the programmes to ensure their economic efficiency and sustainable implementation.

"Trade Relations of the Republic of Belarus and the European Union: Problems, Benefits, Future" (Svetlana Kosinskaya)

The article explores some aspects of trade relations between the Republic of Belarus and the EU states.

The first part shows the role and place of the EU member-states in global economy and community. Then it presents the dynamics of their trade relations with the Republic of Belarus over 7 years.

There have been some changes in trade after the EU expansion and integration into this union of several states bordering upon with the Republic of Belarus. The changes are divided into positive and negative aspects respectively and mathematical and economic substantiation of these aspects is given.

The author recommends specific actions to minimize the negative consequences of the EU expansion and to promote further cooperation between our countries.

"International Experience of Regulation of Entrance Tourism" (Milena Akopyan)

In many countries the tourism industry has significant importance for the economic development. Indeed, due to this fact the state has one of the leading roles in the regulation of entrance tourism. The author reviews three main approaches used for the regulation of entrance tourism. The first approach offers solution of problems by economic subjects independently on the basis of market economy principles. The second approach presupposes establishment of a special state body for the entrance tourism development with considerable authority and financial resources. According to the third approach tourism regulation functions are given to multifunctional ministry.

The article analyzes the experience of regulation of entrance tourism both in the developed countries (Great Britain, Spain, Germany, Austria, Switzerland) and in the developing ones (in particular, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland). It also describes specific features of tourism regulation in France and Italy.

The article also shows the importance of regional and international structures for entrance tourism regulation, in particular, of the European Commission on Tourism and the World Tourism Organization.

On the basis of the international experience analysis the article gives recommendations that could be used for the elaboration of concepts and entrance tourism regulation in the Republic of Belarus.

"Sovereign Credit Rating: the Nature and Assignment Procedures" (Alexey Samodurov)

According to the experts, the Republic of Belarus requires annual inflow of investments for modernization of production capacities of 2 to 6 billion dollars. World practice shows that the optimum tool for attraction of such significant amounts of investment resources are the international securities (eurobonds). Reception by the country of a sovereign credit rating from one or several international rating agencies is the important precondition for attracting investments using eurobonds. There are dozens of rating agencies in the world but the most known and recognized are Standard and Poor’s (S&P), Moody’s Investor’s Service and The Fitch-IBCA. These companies carry out evaluation of the financial condition of the issuer in order to define the possibility of assignment of a credit rating.

The procedure of assignment of a credit rating on the whole has no essential distinctions at various rating agencies and consists of three integrated stages: preparatory, procedures of exhibiting of a rating and supervision over a rating. Certainly, the preparatory stage is the most complex and long-lasting. At this time the all-round analysis of an economic and political life of the country is carried out. The basic principle of research is the movement from the general to the particular — a place of the country in world economy, a review of the national economy as a whole, and the economy of separate enterprises.

The second stage is characterized by the work on direct definition of a possible level of the credit rating, its negotiation with the applicant and the subsequent publication in the official press release of the rating agency. In case of the dissatisfaction with an offered level of the rating the applicant can give at the own discretion additional information or refuse the assignment of the rating.

The last stage is the monitoring of the level of the credit rating to maintain its conformity with conditions developed at everyone concrete moment. The rating agency, according to the contract, constantly watches the activity of the country, which has received a sovereign rating and can raise or lower its value. The last stage is less intensive on the amount of work and consists of the regular analysis of the information received from various sources about the activity of the object of the analysis. This work results in the officially published opinion of the rating agency on the possibility in the foreseeable future to change the sovereign credit rating in any direction.

"Food Security: Methods of Research and Ways of Achievement" (Natalia Svireyko)

The problem of food security has been drawing the attention of the world community since the 1970s when the latter became aware of the lack of world food resources. The term “food security” was internationally spread after the 1972—1973 “grain crisis”. In this case global food security was mainly understood as “preserving stability on food product markets at availability of basic food products for all countries of the world”. It was believed that achieving food security at the global level could lead to food security at the level of states. Aggravation of the food problem in the following period made for development of a new approach to this problem according to which reaching food security on the global scale became possible only after providing it at the level of each country, including the Republic of Belarus.

There are different approaches to the definition of “food security”. They are based either on the import of food products, as well as on self-sufficiency or on the combination of import and the country’s own development of food. Special attention has been paid recently to the right to nutrition supply, i.e. the right to have regular and free access to secure and balanced nutrition in sufficient amounts in peace time and also during wartime. To provide a country’s food security today means support of its own production of raw food materials and products, and the reduction of import. In this connection food security is such a condition of the country’s economy when stable provision of processing industry with agricultural raw materials and the sufficient volume of secure balanced food products with regard to their income are guaranteed, also providing some independence from the import of raw materials and products. The latter means that the import on 9 basic groups of food products should not exceed 30% of the volume of their domestic consumption.

The author proposes a system of indicators and their critical values covering all components of food security: physical and economic availability of food products and their security. Estimation of the offered figures revealed an unsatisfactory situation will food security of the Republic of Belarus on vegetable oil, fish products, sugar, margarine products. The level of consumption of basic food items does not correspond to rational consumption norms.

Despite satisfactory calorie content, an average ration of Belarusians is characterized by the imbalance on main products: excessive consumption of fat, lack of and unbalanced proteins of quality (lack of proteins of animal origin). The country’s population gets insufficient amount of vitamins and mineral substances.

The share of the population’s spending on products purchase remains high (over 50%) proving low living standards of the majority of population and relatively limited economic access to food products.

The author believes that one should create an integrated system of control of the processes related to the problem in order to achieve food security of the country. In her opinion, the main conditions for achieving food security are both efficient work of enterprises in the agricultural sphere, processing industry, trade and improvement of general condition of the economy of the Republic of Belarus. The basis for sufficient provision of population by local food products is the growth of population’s real income, support of local manufacturers in order to produce food products with increased nutrition value, rationalization of volume and structure of import, development of import substitution production of several production types (especially vegetable oil).

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